Celebrating Green Victories!

 

Clovers
Image source: Synthesio.com

 

In honor of St. Patrick’s Day and the “wearing of the green”, let’s take a look at some recent positive news about the environment:

Repurposing Plastics – On March 12th, 2018, Thomas Reuters Foundation revealed an encouraging story about Watamu, Kenya, a small Indian Ocean Resort village whose new mission is to take-on plastic waste. The country banned the sale and use of plastic bags in February and the environmental ministry is planning a plastic bottle buy-back program starting in April. Some of interesting and innovative things people have been creating with plastic refuse run the gamut from fences to furniture to houses, and even a plastic ship to raise awareness about recycling plastic. See for yourself here.

From Farmland to Forests – The Jackson Hole News and Guide reported to the Associated Press on March 13th, 2018 that more than 1.5 square miles of remote ranchland from the former Upper Gros Ventre River Ranch is being added to the Bridger-Teton National Forest, completing the largest land transfer to that national forest in years. The ranchland was donated it to the Trust for Public Land at the end of 2014 by former Democratic U.S. Sen. Herb Kohl. Money from the transfer ($3 million) will be put in a “land action fund” to support the protection of open space in Jackson Hole.

Getting the Lead – And More – Out!Science Daily revealed on March 14, 2018, that researchers from Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, and colleagues from University of California Berkeley, and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory may have found a commercially viable and environmentally safe way to remove heavy metals from municipal drinking water “in seconds.” The solution uses metal organic frameworks (MOFs) combined with a polymer to “quickly and selectively remove high amounts of heavy metals like lead and mercury from real-world water samples.” Samples with high concentrations of lead were reduced to 2 parts-per-billion, a level acceptable by both the EPA and the World Health Organization for drinking water.

Oklahoma Finally Faces Facts on FrackingReuters reported on February 27th, 2018 that the Oklahoma Corporate Commission established new rules to help reduce the risk of earthquakes at fracking sites in the central and southern part of the state. Fracking and related underground injection of fracking wastewaters have been repeatedly shown to cause earthquakes. Data from the Oklahoma Geological Survey revealed in 2015 there were 903 magnitude 3.0 or higher earthquakes versus just 41 of that intensity five years earlier – that’s an increase of 2,200%. Maybe it really is a good thing Scott Pruitt is in Washington instead of his home state… Good for Oklahoma, anyways.

If you know of other cool, green happenings going on, please let me know!

Ocean Blues? Microplastics and Megafauna

mantaray
Feeding manta with plastic in water, Indonesia. Photo Source: Elitza Germanov, Marine Megafauna Foundation

The top environmental news this week?  The effect of microplastics on large filter-feeding sea creatures such as manta-rays, whale sharks, and baleen whales.

A recently published study in the journal Trends in Ecology & Evolution (Trends) looked at how filter-feeding megafauna may be impacted by exposure to microplastics and related toxins. The results are not encouraging.

Trends researchers note that it’s difficult to measure the exact quantities of microplastics megafauna intake. The best way to accurately determine the amount ingested is by examining stomach contents. Since many of these creatures are on by the International Union for Conservation of Nature’s (IUCN) list as globally threatened species, scientists will not harvest them.

However, investigators have developed other methods to determine microplastic intake in these creatures. Based upon these other approaches, it is estimated that “whale sharks may be ingesting 171 items on a daily basis” and the BBC reported, “fin whales in the Mediterranean Sea swallow about 2,000 microplastic particles per day.”

The Trends investigators are concerned that swallowing the indigestible plastic particles may “block nutrient absorption and cause damage to the digestive tract of animals” and that long-term exposure may “alter biological processes, leading to altered growth, development, and reproduction, including reduced fertility.”  Long-term exposure is especially disconcerting since these long-lived animals have few offspring throughout their life.

The ultimate goal of the Trends researchers is to raise awareness in communities, governments, and industry so that the impact of microplastic pollution can be lessened. They are hoping to “change behaviors around the production, management, and use of plastics.”

The message may be catching on.

In the U.S. and abroad, there has been a steady increase in concern over plastic consumption and disposal. Many cities and states are banning the use of plastic bags or encouraging consumers to bring their own reusable bags. Forester Research noted a campaign to ban plastic straws in coastal cities both in the U.S. and other countries.

The United Kingdom and the United States have banned the addition of microbeads and microplastics to cosmetics and personal care products. The Guardian reported in early January that the European Union is “waging war against plastic waste” with a goal of having “every piece of packaging on the continent (be) reusable or recyclable by 2030.” A very noble goal indeed.

Still, legal changes can only go so far to help protect our planet as well as ourselves. As long as consumer demand is strong, manufacturers will continue to meet the demand. It’s ultimately up to us to change our behavior and reduce, reuse, and recycle.

What is one thing you can do this week to help reduce our dependence upon plastics?

“One Word…Plastics”

You may remember this iconic line offered as career advice to young Benjamin Braddock in the 1967 movie The Graduate. Its delivery seemed to foreshadow a revolution in convenience which has clearly come to pass. Everywhere we look we see plastics – in ours homes, in our cars, in our businesses and certainly in the environment. Unfortunately, this innovation in convenience has come at a high price.

Plastic Waste
Man canoeing in a sea of plastics. Photo source: unknown.

The impact of plastics on our environment is shocking. In 1997, racing boat Captain Charles Moore was the first to discover the existence of the Great Pacific Garbage Patch – a collection of marine debris (mostly plastics) spanning from the west coast of America to Japan!

The size of the Garbage Patch is so large that Dianna Parker, of the National Ocean and Atmospheric Administration’s Marine Debris Program, stated NOAA “has estimated that it would take 67 ships one year to clean up less than one percent of the North Pacific Ocean.” It’s an international pollution problem that is too big for any one country to address by itself, so it repeatedly gets placed on the back burner.

Plastics don’t biodegrade, they just break down into tinier and tinier particles, called microplastics, which impact global food webs. They collect near the surface of the oceans, blocking sunlight from reaching plankton and algae, the primary producers of the ocean. This means there’s less food for primary consumers, like turtles and fish which results in less food for larger consumers or predators, like sharks and tuna. This ultimately could mean less food for humans.

It’s not just small pieces of plastic that are a problem. National Geographic website reveals “loggerhead sea turtles often mistake plastic bags for jellies, their favorite food. Albatrosses mistake plastic resin pellets for fish eggs and feed them to chicks, which die of starvation or ruptured organs.” Larger marine life, like seals, get entangled in abandoned plastic fishing nets and drown.

Seal in plastic
Photo Credit: See Common Dreams. “A seal trapped in plastic pollution. Environmental advocates are concerned that a rise in plastics production will bring the world’s oceans to a state of “near-permanent” pollution.” (Photo: Nels Israelson/Flickr/cc)

Plastics are not just in the ocean. Research by Orb Media, with assistance from the State University of New York at Fredonia and the University of Minnesota School of Public Health, has shown that every major water source in the world now has microplastics in it. They are also in our drinking water, including some of the top U.S. bottled water brands. Specifically, they found more than 80 percent of the samples they collected on five continents tested positive for the presence of plastic fibers. Notably, the “US had the highest levels of contamination at 94.4 percent”.

Orb Media - microparticles
Photo Credit: Orb Media. Dyed laboratory filter paper highlights plastic fibers.  See Orb Media online report.

Scarier still is some of these microparticles are small enough to move through our bodies and travel to our lymph nodes.  Forester Network reported some researchers acknowledge that “chemicals from plastics are a constant part of our daily diet.” Research professor, Scott Belcher, PhD, shared with Orb Media “…these plastics are breaking down and leaching chemicals, including endocrine-disrupting plasticizers like BPA or phthalates, flame retardants, and even toxic heavy metals that are all absorbed into our diets and bodies.”

Even more disconcerting is how pervasive plastic is. Chris Tyree, a journalist with Orb Media, contends “the shear amount (of plastic) we are consuming is mind boggling. We’ve practically created more plastic in the last decade than in the last century. If plastic were a country, it would have the world’s 20th largest economy.”

Regardless of all the issues with plastic, its market is growing at a rapid pace. Common Dreams recently reported that various fossil fuel companies, including Exxon and Shell, “have poured more than $180 billion into the creation of plastics facilities that are expected to create a 40 percent rise in production of the material over the next decade.”  That’s a massive increase in a very short amount of time.

The prognosis for our continued plastic dependence looks bleak. Yet, there’s always room for hope.  Major changes in the way society functions have resulted from a few brave souls stepping forward to become way-showers for others.  Could you be one of them?